Utilization of waste Tunisian palm tree date as low-cost adsorbent for the removal of dyes from textile wastewater


  • Sami Guiza National Engineering School of Gabès, Street Omar Ibn-Elkhattab, 6029 Gabès, Tunisia
  • Khadija Ghiloufi National Engineering School of Gabès, Street Omar Ibn-Elkhattab, 6029 Gabès, Tunisia
  • Final Mohamed Bagane National Engineering School of Gabès, Street Omar Ibn-Elkhattab, 6029 Gabès, Tunisia


 The removal of dyes such, as methylene blue and Congo red, from an aqueous solution is studied by adsorption Tunisian palm tree date. The equilibrium isotherm for each dye-adsorbent system was determined. The experimental results have been fitted with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The maximum adsorption capacities of palm tree date are found to be 200 and 90 mg/g at dyes of methylene blue and Congo red, respectively. A comparative cost study, based on the adsorption capacity alone, has shown that the costs of the required adsorbent are 1.1%, and 1, 8%, respectively, compared with the case of commercial granular activated carbon. The Gibb’s free energy values obtained confirm that the process is feasible and spontaneous ΔG < 0. The negative values of ΔH indicate that an exothermic chemisorption took place. The negative values of ΔS suggest that the randomness decreases after adsorption.


- B. H. Hameed. Grass waste: Anovel sorbent for the removal of basic dye from aqueous solution. J. Hazar. Mater., 2009 233-238.

- I. Ali, V. K. Gupta, Advances in water treatment by adsorption technology, Nature protocols, 2007, 2661-2667.

- I. Ali, The Quest for Active Carbon Adsorbent Substitutes: Inexpensive Adsorbents for Toxic Metal Ions Removal from Wastewater, Sep. Purif. Rev., 2010, vol. 39, Issue 3-4, 95-171.

- I. Ali, New generation adsorbents for water treatment, Chem. Revs., 2012, 112, 5073-5091.

- I. Ali, M. Asim, T. A. Khan, Low cost adsorbents for the removal of organic pollutants from wastewater, J. Envir. Management, 2012, vol. 113, 170-183.

- L. Markovska, V. Meshko, V. Noveski, Adsorption of basic dyes in fixed bed column Korean J. Chem. Eng. 2001, 18(2), 190-195.

- S. Sadaf, H. N. Bhatti, I. Bibi, Efficient removal of disperse dye by mixed culture of Ganodermalucidum and Coriolusversicolor, Pak. J. Agr. Sci., 2013, vol. 50(2), 261-266.

- S. Noreen, H. N. Bhatti, S. Nausheen, S. Sadaf, M. Ashfaq, Batch and fixed bed adsorption study for the removal of drimarene black Cl-B dye from aqueous solution using a lignocellulosic waste: A cost affective adsorbent, Ind. Crops and Products, 2013, 50, 568-579.

- S. Sadf, H. N. Bhatti, S. Ali, K. Rehman, Removal of Indosol Turquoise FBL dye from aqueous solution by bagasse, a low cost agricultural waste: Batch and column study, Desalination and Water treatment, 2014, 52, 184-198.

- S. Zaheer, H. N. Bhatti, S. Sdaf, Y. Safa, M. Zia-ur-Ruhman, Biosorptioncharateristics of sugarcane bagasse for the removal of foron blue E-BL bye from aqueous solutions, The J. Animal. Plants Sci., 2014, 24(1), 272-279.

- G. R. Baldo. L. Dohler, A Gryzybowski, M Tiboni,L. B. Scremin,, H S. Koop, M. J. Santana, L. M. Liao, J. D Fontana, Partially carboxymethylated cotton dust waste for sorption of textile wastewater coloured with the cationic dye basic Blue 41 as a model: Synthesis , regeneration ans biodegradability, Taiwan Inst. Chem. Eng., 2014 , 45, 541-553.

- S. Nawaz, H. N. Bhatti, T. H. Bokhari, S. Sadaf, Removal of novacron Golden Yellow dye from aqueous solutions by low cost agricultural waste: Batch and fixed bed study, Chemistry and Ecology, 2014, 30, 52-65.

- J. C. Park, J. B. Joo, J. Yi, Adsorption of acid dyes using polyelectrolyte impregated mesoporous silica, Korean J. Chem. Eng, 2005, 22(2), 276-280.

- C. A. basar Applicability of the various adsorption models of three dyes adsorption onto activated carbon prepared waste apricot, J. H. Mat, 2006, 135, 232-241.

- Imran Ali, Water treatment by adsorption columns: Evaluation at ground level, Sep. Purif. Rev., 2014, 43: 175-2015.

- S. Guiza, M. Bagane. Equilibrium studies for the adsorption of dyes on natural clay. Ann.Chim. Sci. Mat., 2014, 2, 615-626.

- S. Guiza, M. Bagane. External mass transport process during the adsorption of methyl violet onto sodicbentonite, Journal of the university of Chemical technology and metallurgy, 2012, 47, 283-288.

- Y.S Ho, G. McKay. Sorption of dye from aqueous solution by peat, Chem. Eng. J., 1998, 70 115-124.

- G. McKay, J. F. Porter, G. R. Prassad. The removal of dye colours from aqueous solutions by adsorption on low-cost materials. Water, Air, Soil Pollut.1999, 114, 423-438.

- M. M. Nasar. The kinetics of basic dye removal using palm fruit bunch adsorption, Technology.1997, 15, 609-617.

- B.S. Inbaraj, N. Sulochana. Basic dye adsorption on a low cost carbonaceous sorbent: Kinetic and equilibrium studies. Indian J. Chem. Technol., 2002, 9, 201-208.

- Y.S. Ho, G Mckay. Kinetic models for the sorption of dye from aqueous solution by wood, Process Saf. Environ. Prot., 1998, 76, 183-191.

- N. A. Oladoja, I. O. Asia, C. M. A. Ademoroti, O. Oggbewe. Studies on the sorption of methylene blue in a fixed bed of rubber seed shell. Asia-Pac. J. Chem. Eng. 2008, 3, 320-332.

- A. E. Ofomaja. Kinetic study and sorption mechanism of methylene blue and methyl violet onto mansonia wood sawdust. Chem. Eng. J., 2008, 10, 10-16.

- V. K. Gupta, I. Ali, V. K. Saini, Removal of Rhodamine B, Fast Green, and Methylene Blue from Wastewater Using Red Mud, an Aluminum Industry Waste, Ind. Eng. Chem.&Res., 2004, 43, 1740-1747.

- A. Rhouma, Centre de Recherches Phoenicicoles de L’INRA 2260 Degache, Tunisie, CIHEAM- Option Mediterraneennes1996.

- S. Guiza S. M. Bagane M. A.H Al-Soudani. and H. Ben Amor . Adsorption of basic dyes onto natural clay.Adsorp. Sci. Technol., 2004, 22, 245-255.

- Mc. Gordon, M. ElGuendi, M.M. Nassar, Equilibrium Studies During the removal of dyestuffs from aqueous solutions using bagasse pith, Wat. Res., 1987, 1513-1520.

- A. Chehma, H.F. Longo. Valorisation des Sous-Produits du Palmier Dattier en Vue de leur Utilisation en Alimentation du Bétail, Rev. Energ. Ren.: Production et Valorisation- Biomasse, 2001, 59-64.

- K. V. Sarkanen and C.H. Ludwing. Lingins, occurrence, formation, structure and reactions, 1974, Wiley, New York.

- V. Ponnusami, R. Aravindham, N. Karthik raj, G. Ramadoss, S. N. Srivastava. Adsorption of methylene blue onto plant leaf powder: Equilibrium, kinetic, and thermodynamic analysis. J. Env. Prosci.,2009, 3, 1-10.





Engineering Chemistry