Mineralogical characterization and preliminary assessment of the hydrocarbon potential of sedimentary rock from the western part of the Central Kongo
AbstractIn this work, the mineralogical characteristics and the assessment of the petroleum potential of organic carbon-rich sedimentary rock (CK sample) originating from the western part of the Central Kongo were the subject of a preliminary analysis and the results were compared with those of Moroccan oil shales. The mineralogical characterization was carried out using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) spectroscopy, Thermal Gravimetry/Differential Thermal Analysis (TG/DTA) and Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM-EDX). The results show that the examined sedimentary rock contain a significant part of minerals, about 80%, consisting of quartz, clays and pyrite, similar to those frequently found in oil shales. The pyrolysis also indicates the presence of volatile matter between 250 and 580°C, attributed to the Organic Matter (OM) disseminated within the sedimentary rock as was shown in several carbon-rich materials. The detection of pyrite in the CK sample reveals the existence of a reducing environment during the preservation period of OM in the source rock. The assessment of the petroleum potential using the basic Rock-Eval method associated with the elemental analysis and 13C Cross Polarization/Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (13C CP/MAS NMR) spectroscopy indicated a very good organic richness (TOC=10.77%), very good petroleum potential (S2=80.4 mgHC/g rock) with the sapropelic OM described as type I kerogen (H/C molar ratio of 1.71) characterized by high hydrogen index (HI=746 mgHC/g TOC) and low oxygen index (OI=13 mgCO2/g TOC) values. The Rock-Eval results were confirmed by 13C CP/MAS NMR spectroscopy which shows the exclusive presence of aliphatics. The mineralogical and petroleum characteristics of CK sample show a great resemblance with those of known oil shales such as Moroccan oil shales and its kerogen is probably related to a marine or lacustrine environment which formed in anoxic sedimentary rocks and with a thermal evolution that has just reached the early stage of the oil window
- J.R. Dyni, Geology and resources of some world oil-shale deposits, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia 2006, pp. 2005-5294.
- Y.A. Strizhakova, T.V. Usova, Current trends in the pyrolysis of oil shale: A review, Solid Fuel Chem. 2008, 42, 197-201.
- J.R. Dyni, Survey of energy resources, ed. by A.W. Clarke and J.A. Trinnaman, World Energy Council, London 2010, pp. 93-123.
- E. Knaus, J. Killen, K. Biglarbigi and P. Crawford, Oil shale: A solution to the liquid fuel dilemma, ed. by O. Ogunsola and A. Hartstein, Am. Chem. Soc. (ACS), Washington 2010, pp. 3-20.
- M. Kılıç, A.E. Pütün, B.B. Uzun, E. Pütün, Converting of oil shale and biomass into liquid hydrocarbons via pyrolysis, Energy Convers.
Manage. 2014, 78, 461-467.
- A. Laur, K. Tenno, J. Aps, Assessment of external costs in oil shale-based electricity production in Estonia, Oil Shale 2004, 21, 295-308.
- L. Ribas, J.M.D.R. Neto, A.B. FranÃ§a, H.K.P. Alegre, The behavior of Irati oil shale before and after the pyrolysis process, J. Petrol. Sci. Eng. 2017, 152, 156-64.
- A.S. Ratnayake, C.W. Kularathne, Y. Sampei, Assessment of hydrocarbon generation potential and thermal maturity of the offshore Mannar Basin, Sri Lanka, J. Pet. Explor. Prod. Technol. 2017, 1-14.
- R.P. Philp, Diagenetic organic matter in recent sediments and environments of deposition, J. Aust. Geol. Geophys. 1981, 6, 301-306.
- A.S. Ratnayake, Y. Sampei, Characterization of organic matter and depositional environment of the Jurassic small sedimentary basins exposed in the northwest onshore area of Sri Lanka, Res. Org. Geochem. 2015, 31, 15-28.
- A.S. Ratnayake, Y. Sampei, Preliminary prediction of the geothermal activities in the frontier Mannar Basin, Sri Lanka, J. Geol. Soc. Sri Lanka 2015, 17, 19-29.
- K. E. Peters, and M. R. Cassa, The petroleum system-from source to trap, ed. by L.B. Magoon and W.G. Dow, Am. Assoc. Pet. Geol. 1994, pp. 93-120.
- J.M. Hunt, Petroleum geochemistry and geology, second ed., W. H. Freeman and Company, New York 1995.
- D.W. Van Krevelen, Coal: Typology-chemistry-physics-constitution, Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, Amsterdam 1961.
- B.P. Tissot, D.H. Welte, Petroleum formation and occurrence, second ed., Springer, New York 1984.
- J.L.H. Cailteux, F.R.A. Delpomdor, J.P.N. Ndobani, The Neoproterozoic West-Congo "schisto-calcaire" sedimentary succession from the Bas-Congo region (Democratic Republic of the Congo) in the frame of regional tentative correlations, Geol. Belg. 2015, 18, 126-146.
- B.D. Waele, S.P. Johnson, S.A. Pisarevsky, Palaeoproterozoic to Neoproterozoic growth and evolution of the Eastern Congo Craton: Its role in the Rodinia Puzzle, Precambrian Res. 2008, 160, 127-141.
- E. Roberts, H. A. Jelsma and T. Hegna, Geology and resource of the Congo basin, ed. by M.J. de Wit, F. Guillocheau and M.C.J. de Wit, Springer, Heidelberg 2015, pp.163-191.
- M.C. Daly, S.R. Lawrence, K. Diemu-Tshiband, B. Matouana, Tectonic evolution of the cuvette centrale, Zaire, J. Geol. Soc. 1992, 149, 539 -546.
- A. Ambles, G. Dupas, J.C. Jacquesy, D. Vitorovic, Chemical characterization of the kerogen from Moroccan Timahdit oil shale by analysis of oxidation products, Org. Geochem. 1988, 13, 1031-1038.
- A. Doukkali, A. Saoiabi, A. Zrineh, M. Hamad, M. Ferhat, J.M. Barbe, R. Guilard, Separation and identification of petroporphyrins extracted from the oil shales of Tarfaya: geochemical study, Fuel 2002, 81, 467-472.
- S. Kolonic, J.S. Damsté, M.E. Böttcher, M.M.M. Kuypers, W. Kuhnt, B. Beckmann, G.S.T. Wagner, Geochemical characterization of Cenomanian/Turonian black shales from the Tarfaya basin (SW Morocco) relationships between Palaeoenvironmental conditions and early Sulphurization of sedimentary organic matter, J. Pet. Geol. 2002, 25, 325-350.
- K. Groune, M. Halim, M. Benmakhlouf, S. Arsalane, L. Lemee, A. Ambles, Organic geochemical and mineralogical characterization of the Moroccan Rif bituminous rocks, J. Mater. Environ. Sci. 2013, 4, 472-481.
- ASTM, Standard test method for slake durability of shales and similar weak rocks., Annual Book of ASTM Standards 2000, ASTM D 4644-87.
- S. Vyazovkin, A.K. Burnham, J.M. Criado, L.A. Pérez-Maqueda, C. Popescu, N. Sbirrazzuoli,ICTAC Kinetics committee recommendations for performing kinetic
computations on thermal analysis data, Thermochim. Acta 2011, 520, 1-19.
- K.E. Peters, Guidelines for evaluating petroleum source rock using programmed pyrolysis, Am. Assoc. Pet. Geol. Bull. 1986, 70, 318-329.
- E. Lafargue, F. Marquis, D. Pillot, Rock-Eval 6 Applications in hydrocarbon exploration, production, and soil contamination studies, Rev. Inst. Fr. Pét. 1998, 53, 421-437.
- F. Behar, V. Beaumont, B.H. De, L. Penteado, Rock-Eval 6 Technology: performances and developments, Oil Gas Sci. Technol. 2001, 56, 111-134.
- A.E. Souza, S.R. Teixeira, G.T.A. Santos, E. Longo, Addition of sedimentary rock to Kaolinitic clays: Influence on sintering process, Ceram. 2013, 59, 147-155.
- S. Jiang, Clay minerals in nature - their characterization, modification and application, ed. by M. Valaskova and G.S. Martynkova, InTech, China 2012, pp.21-38.
- B. Karpinski, M. Szkodo, Clay minerals Mineralogy and phenomenon of clay swelling in oil & gas industry, Adv. Mater. Sci. 2015, 15, 37-55.
- C.E. Weaver, Possible uses of clay minerals in the search for oil, Am. Assoc. Pet. Geol. 1960, 44, 1505-1518.
- M.J. Wilson, L. Wilson, I. Patey, The influence of individual clay minerals on formation damage of reservoir sandstones: A critical review with some new insights, Clay Miner. 2014, 49, 147-164.
- S.B. Cha, H. Ouar, T.R. Wildeman, E.D. Sloan, A third surface effect on hydrate formation, J. Phys. Chem. 1988, 92, 6492-6494.
- Z. Wei, J.M. Moldowan, J. Dahl, T.P. Goldstein, D.M. Jarvie, The catalytic effects of minerals on the formation of Diamondoids from kerogen macromolecules, Org. Geochem. 2006, 37, 1421-1436.
- H. Li, M. Zhai, L. Zhang, L. Gao, Z. Yang, Y. Zhou, J. He, J. Liang, L. Zhou, P.C. Voudouris, Distribution, microfabric, and geochemical characteristics of siliceous rocks in Central Orogenic Belt, China: Implications for a hydrothermal sedimentation model, Sci. World J. 2014, 2014, 1-25.
- A.F. Muhammad, M.S. El Salmawy, A.M. Abdelaala, S. Sameah, El nakheil oil shale: Material characterization and effect of acid leaching, Oil Shale 2011, 28, 528-547.
- A.S. Ratnayake, Y. Sampei, C.W. Kularathne, Stratigraphic responses to major depositional events from the Late Cretaceous to Miocene in the Mannar Basin, Sri Lanka, J. Geol. Soc. Sri Lanka 2014, 16, 5-18.
- D.J. Burdige, Preservation of organic matter in marine sediments: controls, mechanisms, and an imbalance in sediment organic carbon budgets?, Chem. Rev. 2007, 107, 467-485.
- K.L. Milliken, L.T. Ko, M. Pommer, K.M. Marsaglia, SEM petrography of Eastern Mediterranean sapropels: Analogue data for assessing organic matter in oil and gas shales, J. Sediment. Res. 2014, 84, 961-974.
- W. Yuan, G.D. Liu, A. Stebbins, L.M. Xu, X.B. Niu, W.B. Luo, C.Z. Li, Reconstruction of redox conditions during deposition of organic-rich shales of the Upper Triassic Yanchang Formation, Ordos Basin, China, Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 2017, 486, 158-170.
- E.A. Abou El-Anwar, Mineralogical, petrographical, geochemical, diageneses and provenance of the cretaceous black shales, Duwi formation at Quseir Safaga, Red Sea, Egypt, Egypt. J. Petrol. 2016, 26, 915-926.
- A.S. Ratnayake, Y. Sampei, N.P. Ratnayake, B.P. Roser, Middle to late Holocene environmental changes in the depositional system of the tropical brackish Bolgoda Lake, coastal southwest Sri Lanka, Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 2017, 465, 122-137.
- B. Hazra, A.K. Varma, A.K. Bandopadhyay, S. Chakravarty, J. Buragohain, S.K. Samad, A.K. Prasad, FTIR, XRF, XRD and SEM characteristics of Permian shales, India, J. Nat. Gas Sci. Eng. 2016, 32, 239-255.
- T. Saif, Q. Lin, B. Bijeljic, M.J. Blunt, Microstructural imaging and characterization of oil shale before and after pyrolysis, Fuel 2017, 197, 562-574.
- W. Geng, T. Nakajima, H. Takanashi, A. Ohki, Analysis of carboxyl group in coal and coal aromaticity by Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectrometry, Fuel 2009, 88, 139-144.
- M.J. Adams, F. Awaja, S. Bhargava, S. Grocott, M. Romeo, Prediction of oil yield from oil shale minerals using diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy. Fuel 2005, 84(14-15), 1986-1991.
- I.K. Oikonomopoulos, M. Perraki, N. Tougiannidis, T. Perraki, M.J. Frey, P. Antoniadis, W. Ricken, A comparative study on structural differences of xylite and matrix lignite lithotypes by means of FT-IR, XRD, SEM and TGA analyses: An example from the Neogene Greek lignite deposits, Int. J. Coal Geol. 2013, 115, 1-12.
- H. Jiang, L. Song, Z. Cheng, J. Chen, L. Zhang, M. Zhang, M. Hu, J. Li, J. Li, Influence of pyrolysis condition and transition metal salt on the product yield and characterization via Huadian oil shale pyrolysis, J. Anal. Appl. Pyrol. 2015, 112, 230-236.
- Y. Sun, F. Bai, B. Liu, Y. Liu, M. Guo, W. Guo, Q. Wang, X. Lu, F. Yang, Y. Yang, Characterization of the oil shale products derived via topochemical reaction method, Fuel 2014, 115, 338-346.
- K.N. Alstadt, D.R. Katti, K.S. Katti, An in situ FTIR step-scan photoacoustic investigation of kerogen and minerals in oil shale, Spectrochim. Acta A. Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc, 2012, 89, 105-113.
- H.I. Petersen, P. Rosenberg, H.P. Nytoft, Oxygen groups in coals and alginite-rich kerogen revisited, Int. J. Coal Geol. 2008, 74, 93-113.
- S. Li, X. Ma, Catalytic characteristics of the pyrolysis of lignite over oil shale chars, Appl. Therm. Eng. 2016, 106, 865-874.
- E.C. Moine, K. Groune, A. El Hamidi, M. Khachani, M. Halim, S. Arsalane, Multistep process kinetics of the non-isothermal pyrolysis of Moroccan Rif oil shale, Energy 2016, 115, 931-941.
- Y. Yang, X. Lu, Q. Wang, Investigation on the co-combustion of low calorific oil shale and its semi-coke by using thermogravimetric analysis, Energ. Convers. Manage., 2017, 136, 99-107.
- E.C. Moine, M. Tangarfa, M. Khachani, A. El Hamidi. M. Halim, S. Arsalane, Thermal oxidation study of Moroccan oil shale: A new approach to non-isothermal kinetics based on deconvolution procedure, Fuel 2016, 180, 529-537.
- G. Hu, K.D. Johansen, S. Wedel, J.P. Hansen, Decomposition and oxidation of Pyrite, Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 2006, 32, 295-314.
- Y.R. Zou, J.N. Sun, Z. Li, X. Xu, M. Li, P. Peng, Evaluating shale oil in the Dongying Depression, Bohai Bay Basin, China, using the oversaturation zone method, J. Petrol. Sci. Eng. 2018, 161, 291-301.
- E.A. Abou El-Anwar,M.M. Gomaa, Electrical, mineralogical, geochemical and provenance of cretaceous black shales, Red Sea Coast, Egypt, Egypt. J. Petrol. 2016, 25, 323-332.
- A. AmblÃ¨s, M. Halim, J.C. Jacquesy, D. Vitorovic, M. Ziyad, Characterization of kerogen from Timahdit shale (Y-layer) based on multistage alkaline permanganate degradation, Fuel 1994, 73, 17-24.
- M. Halim, A. AmblÃ¨s, Characterization and classification of Tarfaya kerogen (South Morocco) based on its oxidation products, Chem. Geol. 1997, 141, 225-234.
- F.P. Miknis, A.W. Lindner, A.J. Gannon, M.H. Davis, G.E. Maciel, Solid state 13C NMR studies of selected oil shales from Queensland, Australia, Org. Geochem. 1984, 7, 239-248.
- M.S. Solum, C.L. Mayne, A.M. Orendt, R.J. Pugmire, Characterization of macromolecular structure elements from a Green River oil shale, I. extracts, Energy Fuels 2014, 28,453-465.
- A.L. Mann, R.L. Patience, I.J.F. Poplett, Determination of molecular structure of kerogens using 13C NMR Spectroscopy: I. the effects of variation in kerogen type, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 1991, 55, 2259-2268.
- U. Lille, I. Heinmaa, A.M. MÃ¼Ã¼risepp, T. Pehk, Investigation of Kukersite structure using NMR and oxidative cleavage : On the nature of phenolic precursors in the kerogen of Estonian Kukersite, Oil shale 2002, 19, 101-116.
- V. Bruan, M. Halim, M. Ziyad, C. Largeau, A. Amblès, Characterization of the Moroccan Timahdit (X-layer) oil shale kerogen using pyrolysis and thermally assisted hydrolysis and methylation, J. Anal. Appl. Pyrolysis 2001, 61, 165-179.
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (SeeÂ The Effect of Open Access).