A novel approach for producing low cost and highly efficient activated carbon for removing cationic dyes
AbstractChemical activation was used to prepare a low-cost activated carbon (AC) from an agricultural waste material: sugarcane bagasse. It was used as a green biosorbent for the removal of two cationic dyes from aqueous solutions (Methylene blue (MB) and Malachite Green (MG)). Central composite design (CCD) using response surface methodology (RSM) was applied in this work in order to run a limited number of experiments. The possibility of revealing the interaction of three selected factors: activation temperature, activation time, and chemical impregnation ratios at different levels for the process of preparing the AC were studied. Two-second order quadratic regression models for a yield of AC and capacity of adsorption were developed using JMP Software.The results of the process of optimization were carried out; it showed a good agreement between the predictive response of RSM model and the obtained experimental values with high correlation coefficients (R2) which indicates the efficacy of the model. The optimal activated carbon was obtained using 400Â°C activation temperature, 36 min activation time, and 2 impregnation ratio, resulting in 63.12 % of AC yield and 99.86 % for MB removal and 400Â°C activation temperature, 90 min activation time and 2 impregnation ratio, resulting in 45.69 % of AC yield and 99.75 % for MG removal. Moreover, the comparison between the experimental and the predicted values at optimum conditions was in good agreement with relatively small errors.This work showed the effectiveness and the performance of preparing activated carbon from sugarcane bagasse, and it recommended as an effective and green biosorbent for the removal of cationic dyes from aqueous solutions.
- T. H. Liou, Development of Mesoporous Structure and High Adsorption Capacity of Biomass-Based Activated Carbon by Phosphoric Acid and Zinc Chloride Activation, Chemical Engineering Journal, 2010, 158, 129-142.
- D. Kalderis, S. Bethanis, P. Paraskeva, E. Diamadopoulos, Production of Activated Carbon from Bagasse and Rice Husk by a Single-Stage Chemical Activation Method at Low Retention Times, Bioresource Technology, 2008, 99, 6809-6816.
- J. B. Castro, P. R. Bonelli, E. G. Cerrella, A. L. Cukierman, Phosphoric Acid Activation of Agricultural Residues and Bagasse from Sugar Cane: Influence of the Experimental Conditions on Adsorption Characteristics of Activated Carbons, Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 2000, 39, 4166-4172.
- D. Angin, E. Altintig, T. E. Köse, Influence of Process Parameters on the Surface and Chemical Properties of Activated Carbon Obtained from Biochar by Chemical Activation, Bioresource Technology, 2013, 148, 542-549.
- A. Fernando, S. Monteiro, F. Pinto, B. Mendes, Production of Biosorbents from Waste Olive Cake and Its Adsorption Characteristics for Zn2+ Ion, Sustainability, 2009, 1, 277-297.
- N.S. Sulaiman, R. Hashim, M. H. M. Amini, M. Danish, O. Sulaiman. Optimization of Activated Carbon Preparation from Cassava Stem Using Response Surface Methodology on Surface Area and Yield. Journal of Cleaner Production, 2018, 198, 1422-1430.
- K. Mohanty, D. Das, M. N. Biswas, Adsorption of Phenol from Aqueous Solutions Using Activated Carbons Prepared from Tectona Grandis Sawdust by ZnCl2 Activation, Chemical Engineering Journal, 2005, 115, 121-131.
- G. Crini, Non-Conventional Low-Cost Adsorbents for Dye Removal: A Review, Bioresource Technology, 2006, 97, 1061-1085.
- Y. Zhu, H. Zhang, H. Zeng, M. Liang, R. Lu, Adsorption of Chromium (VI) from Aqueous Solution by the Iron (III)-Impregnated Sorbent Prepared from Sugarcane Bagasse, International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 2012, 9, 463-472.
- M. Eddebbagh, A. Abourriche, M. Berrada, M. B. Zina, A. Bennamara, Adsorbent Material from Pomegranate (Punica Granatum) Leaves: Optimization on Removal of Methylene Blue Using Response Surface Methodology, J. Mater Environ Sci, 2016, 7, 2021-2033.
- B. H. Hameed, A. L. Ahmad, K. N. A.Latiff, Adsorption of Basic Dye (Methylene Blue) onto Activated Carbon Prepared from Rattan Sawdust, Dyes and Pigments, 2007, 75, 143-149.
- F. Moughaoui, M. Berrada, A. Bennamara, A. Abourriche, Z. Anbaoui, Adsorption study of methylene blue dye using Moroccan sugarcane bagasse, In Proceedings Rencontres Scientifiques sur lâ€™Environnement - Morocco, 2016, 1, 109-115.
- F. Moughaoui, A. Ouaket, M. Eddebbagh, A. Bennamara, A. Abourriche, Z. Anbaoui, M. Berrada, Study of Adsorption Isotherms and Kinetic Models of Methylene Blue Adsorption on Moroccan Bagasse Waste, 7th International Conference on Innovation in Chemical, Agricultural, Biological and Environmental Sciences (ICABES-2017); HEAIG: UK, 2017, 59-65.
- A. M. M. Vargas, A. L. Cazetta, M. H. Kunita, T. L. Silva, V. C. Almeida, Adsorption of Methylene Blue on Activated Carbon Produced from Flamboyant Pods (Delonix Regia): Study of Adsorption Isotherms and Kinetic Models, Chemical Engineering Journal, 2011, 168, 722-730.
- V. K. Gupta, Suhas, Application of Low-Cost Adsorbents for Dye Removal - A Review, Journal of Environmental Management, 2009, 90, 2313-2342.
- H. Ali, Biodegradation of Synthetic Dyes - A Review, Water, Air & Soil Pollution, 2010, 213, 251-273.
- S. S. Salih, T. K. Ghosh. Highly Efficient Competitive Removal of Pb(II) and Ni(II) by Chitosan/Diatomaceous Earth Composite. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, 2018, 6, 435-443.
- S. S. Salih, T. K. Ghosh. Preparation and Characterization of Chitosan-Coated Diatomaceous Earth for Hexavalent Chromium Removal. Environmental Processes, 2018, 5, 23-39.
- J. N. Sahu, J. Acharya, B. C. Meikap, Optimization of Production Conditions for Activated Carbons from Tamarind Wood by Zinc Chloride Using Response Surface Methodology, Bioresource Technology, 2010, 101, 1974-1982.
- M. Danish, T. Ahmad, W. N. A. W. Nadhari, M. Ahmad, W. A. Khanday, L. Ziyang, Z.O. Pin. Optimization of Banana Trunk-Activated Carbon Production for Methylene Blue-Contaminated Water Treatment. Applied Water Science, 2018, 8, 9.
- J. Goupy, L. Creighton, Introduction aux plans d'expériences, ed. 3, by Dunod: Paris, 2006, pp. 320.
- D. As, K. Mh, M. Lr, Optimization of the Process Parameters for the Preparation of Activated Carbon from Low-Cost Phoenix Dactylifera Using Response Surface Methodology, Austin Chem Eng, 2015, 2, 9.
- Y. S. Mohammad, E. M. Shaibu-Imodagbe, S. B. Igboro, A. Giwa, and C. A. Okuofu, Modeling and Optimization for Production of Rice Husk Activated Carbon and Adsorption of Phenol, Journal of Engineering, 2014, 2014, 1-10.
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (SeeÂ The Effect of Open Access).