Investigation of pipes and sprinklers scaling at the golf course turf irrigated by treated wastewater of Mzar plant in Agadir-Morocco
AbstractIn Agadir city, the reuse of treated wastewater for irrigation of green spaces has faced the problem of scaling of the pipes of these waters. This research paper aims at studying the phenomenon of scaling caused by the treated wastewater from the Mzar sewage treatment plant in the city of Agadir in south-west of Morocco. These waters are used in the irrigation of golf turf “Ocean”. The formation of solid deposits in the irrigation systems has decreased their lifetime, and consequently, a loss of load and performance is occurring. Thus, the sprinklers used in golf turf irrigation are plugged in the first weeks of the beginning of their operation. The wastewater used for the irrigation of the golf was analyzed at various points using physicochemical measurements: in the golf entry, at the tarpaulin and the exit of the sprinklers. The samples of treated wastewater and obtained scale were studied. The characterization of the scale samples formed in the passageways of the treated wastewaters has been performed by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, differential thermal analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The results of the physicochemical analysis of the waters show that they are full of bicarbonates (653 mg/L), chloride (478 mg/L), nitrate (412 mg/L), sodium (425 mg/L) and in calcium (199 mg/L). Their pH is slightly alkaline. The analysis of the scale reveals that it is rich in calcium and phosphorus. It is formed of calcium carbonate (CaCO3), silica (SiO2), calcium silicate (Ca2SiO4), hydroxylapatite (Ca10P6O26H2), calcium carbonate-apatite(Ca10 (PO4) 6CO3) and silicate calcium and magnesium (Ca5MgSi3O12).
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