Phenolic composition and antioxidant potential of different solvent extracts of the endemic Origanum elongatum (Bonnet) Emberger& Maire
AbstractPlants of the Lamiaceae family are widely used for medicinal, cosmetic and culinary purposes. Phenolic compounds such as flavonoids and tannins are the main constituents of these plants; they have a proven multidirectional biological activity. Polyphenols have exceptional antioxidant potential, and they can intervene in the prevention of many health disorders. This work aims to study the composition and antioxidant power of phenolic compounds from crude extracts and fractions of Origanum elongatum leaves. This specie was subjected to phytochemical study through precipitation, turbidity and coloring reactions to highlight their secondary metabolites qualitative composition. Polyphenolic extraction was made by Soxhlet using two solvents: methanol 70%, ethanol 70%. Then, methanol’s crude was fractionated with solvents having escalating polarity; ethyl acetate, n-butanol. The polyphenols and flavonoids contents were spectrophotometrically estimated using Folin-Ciocalteau and Aluminum Trichloride methods. The antioxidant power of crude and fractionated extracts was evaluated by diphenyl-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH●) and iron (FRAP) tests. The screening tests showed the existence of polyphenols, mucilages, sterols and triterpenes, oses and holosides. The highest yield of extraction is obtained by 70% methanol, with an average of 32.29%. Quantitative assays indicated that the hydroethanolic extract and the ethyl acetate fraction possessed high amount of polyphenols and flavonoids compared with other fractions and subsequently exhibited a marked scavenging activity on DPPH radical (IC50 = 0,085±0,002 and 0,112±0,003 mg/ml, respectively) and high reductive ability on ferric ion assay with IC50 = 0,181±0,004 mg/ml, 0,291±0,005 mg/ml, respectively.
- P.R. Venskutonis, Food additives: The dilemma of synthetic or natural. Acta Alimentaria,2004, 33,1, 1–5.
- M. A. Shah, S. J. D. Bosco, S. A. Mir, Plant extracts as natural antioxidants in meat and meat products, Meat Sci, 2014, 98, 21–33.
- I. L. Elisha, J. P. Dzoyem, L. J. McGaw, F. S. Botha, J. N. Eloff, The anti-arthritic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant activity and relationships with total phenolics and total flavonoids of nine South African plants used traditionally to treat arthritis, BMC Complement Altern Med, 2016, 16(1), 1–10.
- J. Baranauskaite, A. Kubiliene, M. Marksa, V. Petrikaite, K. Vitkevičius, A. Baranauskas, J. Bernatoniene, The Influence of Different Oregano Species on the Antioxidant Activity Determined Using HPLC Postcolumn DPPH Method and Anticancer Activity of Carvacrol and Rosmarinic Acid, Biomed Res Int, 2017, 2017, 1681392.
- M. R. Morshedloo, H. Mumivand, L. E. Craker, F. Maggi, Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of essential oils in Origanum vulgare subsp. gracile at different phenological stages and plant parts, J Food Process Preserv, 2018, 42, 1–8.
- N. Aligiannis, E. Kalpoutzakis, S. Mitaku, I. B. Chinou, Composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of two Origanum species., J Agric Food Chem, 2001, 49, 4168–4170.
- M. Skoula and J. B. Harborne, The taxonomy and chemistry of Origanum, Oregano: the Genera Origanum and Lippia,Taylor and Francis, 2002, 65-108.
- F. Sozmen, B. Uysal, E O. Kose, O. Aktaş,
I. Cinbilgel, B.S., Oksal, Extraction of the essential oil from endemic Origanum bilgeri P.H.Davis with two different methods: comparison of the oil composition and antibacterial activity. Chem.Bio divers, 2012, 9(7),1356–63.
- K. Singletary, Oregano Overview of the Literature on Health Benefits, Nutr Today, 2010, 45(3), 129–138.
- K. Carović-Stanko, M. Petek, M. Grdiša, J. Pintar, D. Bedeković, M. H. Ćustić, Z. Satovic, Medicinal plants of the family lamiaceae as functional foods-A review, Czech J Food Sci, 2016, 34, 377–390.
- J. Bellakhdar, La pharmacopée marocaine traditionnelle. Médecine arabe ancienne et savoirs populaires, Paris - Rabat, Ibis Press -Eds Le Fennec,1997,1-764.
- J. H. Ietswaart, A Taxonomic Revision of the Genus Origanum (Labiatae), Leiden University Press, LaHague, Netherland, 1980,4,1-160.
- A. Amakran, M. Hamoudane, B. Ramdan, A. Lamarti, F. Pagniez, P. le Pape, M. Nhiri, Antifungal activity of the essential oil of origanum elongatum on candida, aspergillus and rhizopus species, J Mycol Med, 2014, 24, e78.
- H. Ramzi, M. R. Ismaili, M. Aberchane, S. Zaanoun, Chemical characterization and acaricidal activity of Thymus satureioides C. & B. and Origanum elongatum E. & M. (Lamiaceae) essential oils against Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman (Acari: Varroidae), Ind Crops Prod, 2017, 108(1), 201–207.
- N. E. L. Moussaoui, G. Sanchez, E. O. Khay, M. Idaomar, A. I. B. N. Mansour, J. Abrini, M. N. EL Moussaoui, G. Sanchez, Antibacterial and antiviral activities of essential oils of northern Moroccan plants, Br Biotechnol J, 2013, 3(3), 318–331.
- A. Joshi, M. Bhobe, A. Sattarkar, Phytochemical investigation of the roots of Grewia microcos Linn. J. Chem. Pharm. Res, 2013,5(3), 80–87.
- J. Bruneton, Les tanins, Parmacognosie – Phytochimie- Plantes médicinales, Paris (France), Éditions Tec & Doc et médicales internationales,2009, 369-404.
- A. A. Dehpour, M. A. Ibrahimzadeh, N. seyed Fazel and N. Seyed Mohammad, Grasas Y Aceites, 2009,60(4), 405-412.
- M. Atanasova, F. Ribarova, Phénols et flavonoïdes totaux dans les extraits secs des feuilles des bouleaux argentés bulgares (Betula pendula), Rev Génie Ind, 2009, 4, 21–25.
- F. Nikhat, E.V.S. Subhramanyam, D. Satynarayana, Isolation Characterization and screening of Antioxidant activity of the Roots of Syzygium cuminii (L) skeel, Asian J. Research Chem., 2009, 2(2),218-22.
- M. ZovkoKoncic, D. Kremer, K. Karlovic, I. Kosalec, Evaluation of antioxidant activities and phenolic content of Berberis vulgaris L. and Berberis croatica Horvat, Food and Che. Tox., 2010,48(8),2176–2180.
- A. C. Rana, B. Gulliya, Chemistry and pharmacology of flavonoids-a review, Indian J Pharm Educ Res, 2019, 53(1), 8–20.
- J. M. Geleijnse, P. C. H. Hollman, Flavonoids and cardiovascular health: Which compounds, what mechanisms?, Am J Clin Nutr, 2008, 88(1), 12–13.
- S.A. Jassim, M.A Naji, Novel antiviral agents: A medicinal plant perspective. Appl Microbiol, 2003,95(3),412-427.
- K. S. De Lira Mota, G. E. N. Dias, M. E. F. Pinto, Â. Luiz-Ferreira, A. R. M. Souza-Brito, C. A. Hiruma-Lima, J. M. Barbosa-Filho, L. M. Batista, Flavonoids with gastroprotective activity, Molecules, 2009, 14(3), 979–1012.
- M. Fernández, J. Caballero, A. Morales Helguera, E. A. Castro, M.P. González, Quantitative structure-activity relationship to predict differential inhibition of aldose reductase by flavonoid compounds. Bio org Med Chem, 2005, 13(9),3269-77.
- A. Ren, W. Zhang, H. G. Thomas, A. Barish, S. Berry, J. S. Kiel, A. P. Naren, A tannic acid-based medical food, cesinex ®, exhibits broad-spectrum antidiarrheal properties: A mechanistic and clinical study, Dig Dis Sci, 2012, 57, 99–108.
- M. Biaye, Actions pharmacologiques des tanins. Thèse d'état en pharmacie sous la direction professeur Bassene, Dakar, Université Cheikh Diop de Dakar faculté de médecine, de pharmacie et d’odonto-stomatologie département de pharmacie, 2002, 1-60.
- E. Sieniawska, Activities of Tannins from in Vitro Studies to Clinical Trials. NaturalProduct Communicat., 2015,10(11), 1877-1884.
- H. Oualili, H. Rchid, R. Nmila, Phytochemical Screening and Antioxidant Activity of: Origanum elongatum and Cupressus atlantica Two Endemic Plants of Morocco , Int J Pharmacogn Phytochem Res , 2018, 10(5), 196–200.
- Lahlou M. Potential of Origanum compactum as a cercaricide in Morocco. Ann Trop Med Parasitol, 2002, 96(6),587-93.
- P. Prerna, N. Vasudeva, Origanum majorana L. -Phyto-pharmacological review, Indian J Nat Prod Resour, 2015, 6(4), 261–267.
- B. Douhri, M. Idaomar, N. Skali Senhaji, A. Ennabili, J. Abrini, Hepatoprotective Effect of Origanum elongatum against Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl4) Induced Toxicity in Rats, European J Med Plants, 2014, 4(1), 14–28.
- A. Bouyahya, J. Abrini, Y. Bakri, N. Dakka, Screening phytochimique et évaluation de l’activité antioxydante et antibactérienne des extraits d’Origanum compactum, Phytotherapie, 2017, 15(6), 379–383.
- H. Zieliński, H. Kozłowska, Antioxidant activity and total phenolics in selected cereal grains and their different morphological fractions, J Agric Food Chem, 2000, 48(6), 2008–2016.
- F. El Babili, J. Bouajila, J. P. Souchard, C. Bertrand, F. Bellvert, I. Fouraste, C. Moulis, A. Valentin, Oregano: Chemical analysis and evaluation of its antimalarial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic activities, J Food Sci, 2011, 76(3), 512–518.
- E. Scholz, H. Rimpler, Proanthocyanidins from Krameria triandra, Root. Planta Med,1989,55(4),379–384.
- S . D. Wei, H. C. Zhou, Y. M. Lin, Antioxidant activities of extract and fractions from the hypocotyls of the mangrove plant Kandelia candel, Int J of Mol Sci, 2010, 11(10), 4080-4093.
- A. Munawar, S. Farhan, F. M. Anjum, M. Afzaal, T. Tufail, M. S. Bashir, A. Ishtiaq, H. Shahzad, H.A.R. Suleria, Natural polyphenols: An overview. Int J of food pro, 2017, 20(8), 1689–1699.
- S. Abdillah, R.M. Tambunan, Y. Farida, N.M.D. Sandhiutami, R.M. Dewi, Phytochemical screening and antimalarial activity of some plants traditionally used in Indonesia, Asian Pac J Trop Dis, 2015; 5(6), 454-457.
- A. Özkan, A. Erdoǧan, A comparative evaluation of antioxidant and anticancer activity of essential oil from origanum onites (lamiaceae) and its two major phenolic components, Turkish J Biol, 2011, 35, 735–742.
- H. J. D. Dorman, O. Bachmayer, M. Kosar, R. Hiltunen, Antioxidant Properties of Aqueous Extracts from Selected Lamiaceae Species Grown in Turkey, J Agric Food Chem, 2004, 52, 762–770.
- E. P. Gutiérrez-Grijalva, M. A. Picos-Salas, N. Leyva-López, M. S. Criollo-Mendoza, G. Vazquez-Olivo, J. B. Heredia, Flavonoids and phenolic acids from Oregano: Occurrence, biological activity and health benefits, Plants, 2018, 7(1), 1–23.
- D. Malešev, V. Kuntić, Investigation of metal-flavonoid chelates and the determination of flavonoids via metal-flavonoid complexing reactions, J Serbian Chem Soc, 2007, 72, 921–939.
- P. Siddhuraju, K. Becker, Antioxidant properties of various solvent extracts of total phenolic constituents from three different agroclimatic origins of drumstick tree (Moringa oleifera Lam.) leaves, J Agric Food Chem, 2003, 51(8), 2144–2155.
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (SeeÂ The Effect of Open Access).